277. Bridges, A.D., Royka, A., Wilson, T., Lockwood, C., Richter, J., Juusola, M. & Chittka L. Bumblebees socially learn behaviour too complex to innovate alone. Nature 627, 572–578 (2024).




276. Bridges A. D., Chittka L. (2023) Escaping anthropocentrism in the study of non-human culture: Comment on “Blind alleys and fruitful pathways in the comparative study of cultural cognition” by Andrew Whiten. Physics of Life Reviews 44, 267-269 DOI:


275. Bridges A. D., MaBouDi H., Procenko O., Lockwood C., Mohammed Y., Kowalewska A., Romero-Gonzalez E., Woodgate J. L. & Chittka L. (2023) Bumblebees acquire alternative puzzlebox solutions via social learning. PLoS Biology 21(3): e3002019 DOI:  


274. Chittka L., Rossi N. (2023) Bees learn to dance. Science, 379(6636): 985-986.


273. Crump A., Gibbons M., Barrett M., Birch J. & Chittka L. (2023) Is it time for insect researchers to consider their subjects’ welfare? PLoS Biology 21(6): e3002138 DOI:


272. Gallo, V., Bridges, A.D., Woodgate, J.L. & Chittka L. Sub-cell scale features govern the placement of new cells by honeybees during comb construction. J Comp Physiol A (2023) DOI:


271. Iturbe, X., Abella, J., Alcaide, S., Beyne, E., Charles, H.-P., Chittka, L., Dávila, A., Dupret, Y., Erdmann, A., Fontanelli, A., Flich, J., Grosu, R., Carles Hernández, Hochmann, J., Ielmini, D., Isakovic, H., Isusquiza, E., Jackson, D., Kooli, M., Linares-Barranco, B., Laurent, E., Lindwer, M., Masařík, K., Mentens, N., Moreira, O., Noel, J.-P., Posch, C., Priller, P., Prikryl, Z., Rhodes, O., Stefanov, T., Taliercio, M., Ugarte, J., Van der Plas, G., Vianello, E. and Zaykov P. (2023) NimbleAI: Towards neuromorphic sensing - processing 3D-integrated chips. In Proceedings: 26th Int. Conf. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE'23), Antwerp, Belgium, Apr. 17-19, 2023 




270. Chittka L. (2022) "Personality" differences between bees. Natural History, 922(3):16-23


269. Chittka L. & Rossi N. (2022) Social cognition in insects. Trends In Cognitive Science, 26(7). DOI:


268. Colgan T.J., Arce A.N., Gill R.J., Ramos Rodrigues A., Kanteh A., Duncan E.J., Li L., Chittka L. & Wurm Y. (2022) Genomic Signatures of Recent Adaptation in a Wild Bumblebee. Mol. Biol. Evol., 39(2). DOI:


267. Galpayage Dona H.S., Solvi C., Kowalewska A, Makel K, MaBouDi H , Chittka L. (2022). Do bumble bees play? Animal Behaviour 119, 239-251.


266. Gibbons M. and Chittka L. (2022) A framework for evaluating evidence of pain in animals. Animal Sentience 32(28) DOI: 10.51291/2377-7478.1767


265. Gibbons M., Crump A., Barrett, M., Sarlak S., Birch J. and Chittka L. (2022). Can insects feel pain? A review of the neural and behavioural evidence. Advances in Insect Physiology 63, 155-229.  DOI:

264. Gibbons M., Sarlak S. & Chittka L. (2022) Descending control of nociception in insects? Proc. R. Soc. B 289 (1978). DOI:

263. Gibbons M., Versace E., Crump A., Baran B. & Chittka L. (2022) Motivational trade-offs and modulation of nociception in bumblebees. PNAS 119 (31). DOI:

262. Guiraud M., Roper M., Wolf S., Woodgate J.L. & Chittka L. (2022) Discrimination of edge orientation by bumblebees. PLoS ONE 17(6). DOI:

261. Solvi C., Zhou Y., Feng Y., Lu Y., Roper M., Sun L., Reid R. J., Chittka L., Barron A. B. & Peng P. (2022)

Bumblebees retrieve only the ordinal ranking of foraging options when comparing memories obtained in distinct settings.
 eLife 11: e78525 


260. Brebner J.S. & Chittka L. (2021) Animal cognition: The self-image of a bumblebee. Current Biology, 31(4): R207-R209. DOI:

259. Brebner J., Makinson J., Bates O., Rossi N., Lim K., Pasquaretta C., Dubois T., Gomez-Moracho T., Lihoreau M., Chittka L. & Woodgate J. (2021) Bumblebees strategically use ground-level linear features in navigation. Animal Behaviour, 179:147-160. DOI:


258. Gallo V. & Chittka L. (2021) Stigmergy versus behavioral flexibility and planning in honeybee comb construction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 118 (33) e2111310118. DOI:

257. Li L., Solvi C., Zhang F., Qi Z., Chittka L. & Zhao W. (2021) Gut microbiome drives individual memory variation in bumblebees. Nature Communications 12, 6588. DOI:

  • 256. Nityananda V. & Chittka L. (2021) Different effects of reward value and saliency during bumblebee visual search for multiple rewarding targets. Animal Cognition 24:803-814. DOI:

    255. Woodgate J.L., Makinson J.C., Rossi N., Lim K.S., Reynolds A.M., Rawlings C.J. & Chittka L. (2021) Harmonic radar tracking reveals that honeybee drones navigate between multiple aerial leks. iScience, 102499. DOI:


    254. Chittka L. (2020) The secret life of bees as horticulturists? Science 368, 824-825. DOI:

    253. Galpayage Dona H.S. & Chittka L. (2020) Charles H. Turner, pioneer in animal cognition. Science 370, 530-531. DOI:

    252. Loukola O.J., Gatto E., Hijar-Islas A.C. & Chittka L. (2020) Selective interspecific informaton use in the nest choice of solitary bees. Animal Biology, Volume 70, Issue 1:1-11. DOI:

    251. MaBouDi H., Galpayage Dona H.S., Gatto E., Loukola O.J., Buckley E., Onoufriou P.D., Skorupski P. & Chittka L. (2020) Bumblebees use sequential scanning of countable items in visual patterns to solve numerosity tasks. Integrative and Comparative Biology 60: 929–942. DOI: 


    250. MaBouDi H., Solvi C. & Chittka L. (2020) Bumblebees learn a relational rule but switch to a win-stay/lose-switch heuristic after extensive training. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 14(137). DOI:


    249. Romero-Gonzalez J.E., Solvi C. & Chittka L. (2020) Honey bees adjust colour preferences in response to concurrent social infromation from conspecifics and heterospecifics. Animal Behaviour, 170: 219-228. DOI:


    248. Solvi C., Gutierrez Al-Khudhairy S. & Chittka L. (2020) Bumble bees display cross-modal object recognition between visual and tactile senses. Science 367, 910-912. DOI:



    247. Arnold S.E.J. & Chittka L. (2019) Flower colour diversity seen through the eyes of pollinators. A commentary on:'Floral colour structure in two Australian herbaceous communities: it depends on who is looking'. Annals of Botany, 124(2): viii-ix. DOI: 

    246. Bayne T., Brainard D., Byrne R.W., Chittka L., Clayton N., Heyes C., Mather J., Olveczky B., Shadlen M, Suddendorf T. & Webb B. (2019) What is cognition? Current Biology, 29(13): R608-R615. DOI:

    245. Bridges A.D. & Chittka L. (2019) Animal behaviour: conformity and the beginnings of culture in an insect. Current Biology, 29(5): R167-R169. DOI:

    244. Chittka L., Giurfa M. & Riffell J.A. (2019) Editorial: The Mechanisms of Insect Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:2751. DOI:


    243. Chittka L. & Wilson C. (2019) Expanding consciousness. American Scientist, 107(6):364-369. DOI:


    242. Colgan T.J., Fletcher I.K., Arce A.N., Gill R.J., Ramos Rodrigues A., Stolle E., Chittka L. & Wurm Y. (2019) Caste- and pesticide-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticide exposure on gene expression in bumblebees. Molecular Ecology, 28:1964-1974. DOI:

    241. Guan C., Egertová M.,Perry C.J., Chittka L. & Chittka A. (2019) Temporal correlation of elevated PRMT1 gene expression with mushroom
    body neurogenesis during bumblebee brain development. Journal of Insect Physiology, 116:5769. DOI:

    240. Makinson J.C., Woodgate J.L., Reynolds A., Capaldi E.A., Perry C.J. & Chittka L. (2019) Harmonic radar tracking reveals random dispersal pattern of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) queens after hibernantion. Scientific Reports, 9:4651. DOI:

    239. Pasquaretta C., Jeanson R., Pansanel J., Raine N.E., Chittka L. & Lihoreau M. (2019) A spatial network analysis of resource partitioning between bumblebees foraging on artifical flowers in a flight cage. Movement Ecology, 7:4. DOI:

    238. Perry C.J. & Chittka L. (2019) How foresight might support the behavioral flexibility of arthropods. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 54: 171-177. DOI:

    237. Vasas V., Peng F., MaBouDi H. & Chittka L. (2019) Randomly weighted receptor inputs can explain the large diversity of colour-coding neurons in the bee visual system. Scientific Reports, 9:8330. DOI:

    236. Vasas V. & Chittka L. (2019) Insect-inspired sequential inspection strategy enables an artificial network of four neurons to estimate numerosity. iScience, 11: 85-92. DOI:



    235. Avargues-Weber A., Lachlan R. & Chittka L. (2018) Bumblebee social learning can lead to suboptimal foraging choices. Animal Behaviour 135(2018): 209-214. DOI:

    234. Emberton S., Chittka L. & Cavallaro A.(2018) Underwater image and video dehazing with pure haze region segmentation. Computer vision and Image Understanding, 168: 145-156. DOI:

    233. Gallo V. & Chittka L. (2018) Cognitive Aspects of Comb-Building in the Honeybee? Frontiers in Psychology, 9:900. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00900

    232. Guiraud M., Roper M. & Chittka L. (2018) High-Speed Videography Reveals How Honeybees Can Turn a Spatial Concept Learning Task Into a Simple Discrimination Task by Stereotyped Flight Movements and Sequential Inspection of Pattern Elements. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:1347. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01347

    231. Lawson D.A., Chittka L., Whitney H.M. & Rands S.A. (2018) Bumblebees distinguish floral scent patterns, and can transfer these to corresponding visual patterns. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 285(1880): 20180661:. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0661

    230. Li Li, Su S., Perry C.J., Elphick M.R., Chittka L. & Sovik E.(2018) Large-scale transcriptome changes in the process of long-term visual memory formation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Scientific Reports 8, Article number: 534. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18836-3

    229. Matthews T., Osorio D., Cavallaro A. & Chittka L. (2018) The Importance of Spatial Visual Scene Parameters in Predicting Optimal Cone Sensitivities in Routinely Trichromatic Frugivorous Old-World Primates. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 12:15. DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2018.00015

    228. Nieberding C.M., Van Dyck H. & Chittka L. (2018) Adaptive learning in non-social insects: from theory to field work, and back. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 27:75-81. DOI:

    227. Skorupski P., MaBouDi H., Galpayage Dona H.S. & Chittka L. (2018) Counting Insects. Phil Trans R Soc B 373(2018): 20160513 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0513

    226. Vasas V., Brebner J.S. & Chittka L. (2018) Color discrimination is not just limited by photoreceptor noise: a comment on Olsson et al. Behavioral Ecology 29(2): 285–286. DOI: 

    225. Wang M., Chittka L. & Ings T.C. (2018) Bumblebees express consistent, but flexible, speed-accuracy tactics under different levels of predation threat. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:1601. DOI:

    224. Woodgate J.L. & Chittka L. (2018) Central Place Foraging. In: Vonk J., Shackelford T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer, Cham. DOI:




    223. Baracchi D., Marples A., Jenkins A.J., Leitch A.R. & Chittka L. (2017) Nicotine in floral nectar pharmacologically influences bumblebee learning of floral features. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 1951. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01980-1

    222. Buatois A., Pichot C., Schultheiss P., Sandoz JC., Lazzari C.R.,Chittka L., Avarguès-Weber A. & Giurfa M. (2017) Associative visual learning by tethered bees in a controlled visual environment. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12903. DOI:

    221. Chittka L. (2017) Bee cognition. Current Biology 27(19): R1049–R1053. DOI:

    220. Chittka L. & Skorupski P. (2017) Active vision: A broader comparative perspective is needed. Constructivist Foundations 13(1): 128–129.

    219. Li Li, MaBouDi H., Egertová M., Elphick M.R.,Chittka L. & Perry C.J.(2017) A possible structural correlate of learning performance on a colour discrimination task in the brain of the bumblebee. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 284(1864): 20171323. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.1323

    218. Loukola O.J., Perry C.J., Coscos L. & Chittka L. (2017) Bumblebees show cognitive flexibility by improving on an observed complex behavior. Science 355(6327): 833-836. DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2360

    217. MaBouDi H., Shimazaki H., Giurfa M.& Chittka L. (2017) Olfactory learning without the mushroom bodies: Spiking neural network models of the honeybee lateral antennal lobe tract reveal its capacities in odour memory tasks of varied complexities. PLoS Comput Biol 13(6): e1005551. DOI:

    216. Pasquaretta C., Jeanson R., Andalo C., Chittka L. & Lihoreau M. (2017) Analysing plant–pollinator interactions with spatial movement networks. Ecological Entomology 42 (Suppl. 1): 4–17. DOI: 10.1111/een.12446

    215. Peng F. & Chittka L. (2017) A Simple Computational Model of the Bee Mushroom Body Can Explain Seemingly Complex Forms of Olfactory Learning and Memory. Current Biology 27(2): 224-230. DOI:

    214. Perry C.J., Barron A.B. & Chittka L. (2017) The frontiers of insect cognition. Curr Opin Behav Sci 16:111-118. DOI:


    213. Roper M., Fernando C. & Chittka L. (2017) Insect Bio-inspired Neural Network Provides New Evidence on How Simple Feature Detectors Can Enable Complex Visual Generalization and Stimulus Location Invariance in the Miniature Brain of Honeybees. PLoS Comput Biol 13(2): e1005333. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005333


    212. Vasas V., Hanley D., Kevan P.G. & Chittka L. (2017) Multispectral images of flowers reveal the adaptive significance of using long-wavelength-sensitive receptors for edge detection in bees. Journal of Comparative Physiology A  203(4): 301-311. doi:10.1007/s00359-017-1156-x

    211. Wang MY., Vasas V., Chittka L. &  Yen SH. (2017) Sheep in wolf's clothing: multicomponent traits enhance the success of mimicry in spider-mimicking moths. Animal Behaviour 127:219-224. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.020

    210. Woodgate JL., Makinson JC., Lim KS., Reynolds AM. & Chittka L. (2017)Continuous Radar Tracking Illustrates the Development of Multi-destination Routes of Bumblebees. Scientific Reports 7: 17323  doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17553-1



    209. Alem S., Perry C.J., Zhu X., Loukola O.J., Ingraham T., Søvik E. & Chittka L. (2016) Associative Mechanisms Allow for Social Learning and Cultural Transmission of String Pulling in an Insect. PLoS Biology 14(10): e1002564. doi:10.1371/journal. pbio.1002564


    208. Baracchi D., Turillazzi S. & Chittka L. (2016) Facial patterns in a tropical social wasp correlate with colony membership. The Science of Nature 103: 80. doi:10.1007/s00114-016-1406-8


    207. Chittka L. (2016) Editorial overview: Behavioural ecology — molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning adaptive behaviour in insects. Current Opinion in Insect Science 15:vii–ix. DOI: 10.1016/j.cois.2016.05.002


    206. Dawson E.H., Chittka L. & Leadbeater E. (2016) Alarm substances induce associative social learning in honeybees, Apis mellifera. Animal Behaviour 122:17-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.08.006


    205. Emberton S., Chittka L., Cavallaro A. & Wang M. (2016) Sensor Capability and Atmospheric Correction in Ocean Colour Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing, 8(1),1. DOI: 10.3390/rs8010001


    204. Lihoreau M., Chittka L., & Raine, N. E. (2016). Monitoring Flower Visitation Networks and Interactions between Pairs of Bumble Bees in a Large Outdoor Flight Cage. PloS one, 11(3), e0150844. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150844


    203. Lihoreau M., Ings T. C., Chittka L., & Reynolds A. M. (2016). Signatures of a globally optimal searching strategy in the three-dimensional foraging flights of bumblebees. Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 30401. DOI:10.1038/srep30401


    202. Niven J.E. & Chittka L. (2016). Evolving understanding of nervous system evolution. Current Biology, 26(20):R937–R941; DOI:


    201. Perry C.J., Baciadonna L. & Chittka L. (2016). Unexpected rewards induce dopamine-dependent positive emotion–like state changes in bumblebees. Science 353(6307):1529-1531; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf4454

    200. Smolla M., Alem S., Chittka L., & Shultz S. (2016). Copy-when-uncertain: bumblebees rely on social information when rewards are highly variable. Biology Letters 12:20160188; DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0188


    199. Whitney H. M., Reed A., Rands S. A., Chittka L., & Glover B. J. (2016). Flower iridescence increases object detection in the insect visual system without compromising object identity. Current Biology, 26:802-808. DOI:


    198. Wolf S. & Chittka L. (2016) Male bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, perform equally well as workers in a serial colour-learning task. Animal Behaviour, 111:147-155. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.10.009


    197. Woodgate J. L., Makinson J. C., Lim K. S., Reynolds A. M. & Chittka L. (2016) Life-Long Radar Tracking of Bumblebees. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0160333. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0160333




    196. Baracchi, D., Brown, M.J.F. & Chittka, L. (2015). Behavioural evidence for self-medication in bumblebees? F1000 Research, 4:73
  • 195. Baracchi, D., Petrocelli, I., Chittka, L., Ricciardi, G., & Turillazzi, S. (2015). Speed and accuracy in nest-mate recognition: a hover wasp prioritizes face recognition over colony odour cues to minimize intrusion by outsiders. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 282(1802), 2014275
  • 0

  • 194. Emberton, S., Chittka, L.,  Cavallaro, A. (2015) Hierarchical rank-based veiling light estimation for underwater dehazing. In; Xie, X., Jones, M.W., Tam, G.K.L. (editors). Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC), pages 125.1-125.12. BMVA Press, DOI: 10.5244/C.29.125;


    193. Hunt, K. & Chittka, L. (2015). Merging of Long-Term Memories in an Insect Current Biology, 25:741–745

    192. Jones, P.L., Ryan, M.J. & Chittka, L. (2015). The influence of past experience with flower reward quality on social learning in bumblebees. Animal Behaviour, 101: 11-18

    191. McCarthy, E. W., Arnold, S. E. J., Chittka, L., Le Comber, S. C., Verity, R., Dodsworth, S., Knapp, S., Kelly, L. J., Chase, M. W., Baldwin, I. T., Kova IK, A., Mhiri, C., Taylor, L. & Leitch, A. R. (2015). The effect of polyploidy and hybridization on the evolution of floral colour in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)Annals of Botany, 115: 1117–1131

    190. Morawetz, L., Chittka, L. & Spaethe, J. (2015). Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit flexible visual search strategies for vertical targets presented at various heights F1000Research, 3:174 


    189. Nityananda, V. & Chittka, L. (2015). Modality-specific attention in foraging bumblebees. Royal Society Open Science, 2:150324

    188. Sadd, B.M. & 143 other authors including Chittka, L. in position 130 (2015). The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation. Genome Biology, 16:76

    187. Wang, M.Y., Brennan, C.H., Lachlan, R.F. & Chittka, L. (2015). Speed-accuracy trade-offs and individually consistent decision making by individuals and dyads of zebrafish in a colour discrimination task. Animal Behaviour, 103: 277-283

    186. Wolf, S., Roper, M. & Chittka, L. (2015) Bumblebees utilize floral cues differently on vertically and horizontally arranged flowers. Behavioural Ecology 26(3), 773–781. doi:10.1093/beheco/arv010



    185. Avarguès-Weber, A. & Chittka, L. (2014). Local enhancement or stimulus enhancement? Bumblebee social learning results in a specific pattern of flower preference. Animal Behaviour, 97: 185-191

    184. Avargu
    ès-Weber, A. & Chittka, L. (2014). Observational Conditioning in Flower Choice Copying by Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): Influence of Observer Distance and Demonstrator Movement. PloS ONE, 9(2): 1-5

    183. Chittka, L., Faruq, S., Skorupski, P. & Werner, A. (2014). Colour constancy in insects. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, DOI: 10.1007/s00359-014-0897-z

    182. Chittka, L. & Raine, N.E. (2014). Bumblebee colour patterns and predation risk: a reply to Owen. Journal of Zoology, 292: 133-135

    181. Dawson, E.H. & Chittka, L. (2014). Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) use social information as an indicator of safety in dangerous environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281:1-5

    180. Hunt, K. & Chittka, L. (2014) False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans. F1000Research, 3:154

    179. Nityananda, V., Skorupski, P. & Chittka, L. (2014) Can bees see at a glance? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 217: 1933-1939



    178. Avarguès-Weber, A., Dawson, E.H. & Chittka, L. (2013). Mechanisms of social learning across species boundaries. Journal of Zoology, 290: 1-11

    177. Chittka, L., Stelzer, R. & Stanewsky R. (2013). Daily changes in UV light levels can synchronize the circadian clock of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Chronobiology International, 30: 434-442

    176. Chittka, L. & Peng, F. (2013). Caffeine Boosts Bees’ Memories. Science, 309: 1157-1159

    175. Clare, E.L., Schiestl, F.P., Leitch, A.R. & Chittka, L. (2013). The promise of genomics in the study of plant-pollinator interactions. Genome Biology, 14:207

    174. Collett, M., Chittka, L.& Collett, T.S. (2013). Spatial Memory in Insect Navigation. Current Biology, 23(17): R789–R800

    173. Dawson, E.H., Avarguès-Weber, A., Chittka, L. & Leadbeater, E. (2013). Learning by observation emerges from simple associations in an insect model. Current Biology, 23: 727-730

    172. Faruq, S., McOwan, P.W. & Chittka, L. (2013). The biological significance of colour constancy: An agent-based model with bees foraging from flowers under varied illumination. Journal of Vision, 13(10):1-14

    171. Land, M. & Chittka, L. (2013). Vision. In: The Insects: Structure and Function, 5th Edition (eds. Simpson, S. J. and Douglas, A. E.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 708-737

    170. Lihoreau, M., Raine, N.E., Reynolds, A.M. Stelzer, R.J., Lim, K.S. Smith, A.D., Osborne, J.L. & Chittka, L. (2013). Unravelling the mechanisms of trapline foraging in bees. Communicative and Integrative Biology, 6: 1-4

    169. Papadopulos, A.S.T., Powell, M.P., Pupulin, F., Warner, J., Hawkins, J.A., Salamin, N., Chittka, L., Williams, N.H., Whitten, W.M., Loader, D., Valente, L.M., Mark W. Chase, M.W. & Savolainen, V. (2013). Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids. Proc Royal Soc Lond B, 280: 20130960

    168. Reynolds, A.M., Lihoreau, M. & Chittka, L. (2013). A Simple Iterative Model Accurately Captures Complex Trapline Formation by Bumblebees Across Spatial Scales and Flower Arrangements. PLOS Computational Biology, 9: e1002938

    167. van der Woude, E., Smid, H.M., Chittka, L. & Huigens, M.E. (2013). Breaking Haller’s Rule: Brain-body size isometry in a minute parasitic wasp. Brain Behav Evol, 81: 86-92

    166. Vukusic, P. & Chittka, L. (2013). Visual signals: color and light production. In: The Insects: Structure and Function, 5th Edition (eds. Simpson, S. J. and Douglas, A. E.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 793-823

    165. Wang, M.Y., Ings, T.C., Proulx, M.J. & Chittka, L. (2013). Can bees simultaneously engage in adaptive foraging behaviour and attend to cryptic predators? Animal Behaviour, 86(4): 859-866



    164. Arnold, S.E.J. & Chittka, L. (2012). Illumination preference, illumination constancy and colour discrimination by bumblebees in an environment with patchy light. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215: 2173-2180

    163. Chittka, A., Wurm, Y. & Chittka, L. (2012). Epigenetics: The Making of Ant Castes. Current Biology, 22: R835-R838

    162. Chittka, L.,& Dyer, A. (2012). Your face looks familiar. Nature, 481: 154-155

    161. Chittka, L., Rossiter, S.J., Skorupski, P. & Fernando, C. (2012). What is comparable in comparative cognition? Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society, 3671: 2677-2685

    160. Dawson, E.H. & Chittka, L. (2012). Conspecific and heterospecific information use in bumblebees. PloS ONE, 7: e31444

    159. Ings, T.C., Wang, M.Y. & Chittka, L. (2012) Colour independent shape recognition of cryptic predators by bumblebees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66: 487-496

    158. Lenz, F, Ings, T.C., Chittka L., Chechkin, A.V. & Klages, R. (2012). Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Bumblebees Foraging under Predation Risk. Physical Review Letters, 108: 1-5

    157. Lihoreau, M.D., Chittka, L., Le Comber, S.C. & Raine, N.E. (2012). Bees do not use nearest neighbour rules for optimization of multilocation routes. Biology Letters, 8: 13-16

    156. Lihoreau, M.D., Latty, T. & Chittka, L. (2012). An exploration of the social brain hypothesis in insects. Frontiers in Physiology, 442: 1-7

    155. Lihoreau, M.D., Raine, N.E., Reynolds, A.M., Stelzer, R.J., Lim, K.S., Smith, A.D., Osborne, J.L. & Chittka, L. (2012). Radar tracking and motion-sensitive cameras on flowers reveal the development of pollinator multi-destination routes over large spatial scales. PLoS Biology, 10: e1001392

    154. Muller, H. & Chittka, L. (2012). Consistent interindividual differences in discrimination performance by bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus terrestris) in colour, shape and odour learning tasks. Entomologia generalis, 34: 1-8

    153. Przybylowicz, T., Roessingh, P., Groot, A.T., Bismeijer, J.C. (Kroos), Oostermeijer, J.G.B., Chittka, L., & Gravendeel, B. (2012). Possible chemical mimicry of the European lady's slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus) . Contributions to Zoology, 81: 103-110

    152. Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2012). No Trade-Off between Learning Speed and Associative Flexibility in Bumblebees: A Reversal Learning Test with Multiple Colonies. PLoS ONE, 7: e45096



    151. Chittka, L. & Jensen, K. (2011). Animal Cognition: Concepts from Apes to Bees. Current Biology, 21: R116-R119

    150. Chittka, L. & Skorupski, P.(2011). Information processing in miniature brains. Proc Royal Soc Lond B, 278: 885-888

    149. Doring, T.D., & Chittka. L. (2011). How human are insects and does it matter? Formosan Entomologist, 31: 85-99

    148. Leadbeater, E.A. & Chittka, L. (2011). Do inexperienced bumblebee foragers use scent makers as social information? Animal Cognition, 14: 915-919

    147. Lihoreau, M.D., Chittka, L. & Raine, N.E. (2011). Trade-off between travel distance and prioritization of high-reward sites in traplining bumblebees. Functional Ecology, 25: 1284–1292

    146. Mendl, M., Paul, E.S., & Chittka, L. (2011). Animal Behaviour: Emotion in Invertebrates? Current Biology, 21: D463-D465

    145. Skorupski, P. & Chittka, L. (2011). Photoreceptor processing speed and input resistance changes during light adaptation correlate with spectral class in the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens. PlosONE, 6: e25989

    144. Skorupski, P. & Chittka, L. (2011). Is colour cognitive? Optics and Laser Technology, 43: 251-260

    143. Whitney, H.M., Bennet, K.M.V., Dorling, M., Sandbach, L., Prince, D. Chittka, L. & Glover, B.J. (2011). Why do so many petals have conical epidermal cells? Annals of Botany, 108: 609-611

    142. Whitney, H.M., Poetes, R., Steiner, U., Chittka, L. & Glover, B.J. (2011). Determining the contribution of epidermal cell shape to petal wettability using isogenic antirrhinum lines. PloS One. 6: e17576



    141. Arnold, S.E.J., Faruq, S., Savoleinen V., McOwan P. & Chittka, L. (2010). FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database - a web portal for analyses of flower colour. PLoS One, 5: e14287

    140. Chittka, L. (2010). Q&A. Current Biology, 20: R1006-R1008

    139. Chittka, A. & Chittka, L. (2010). Epigenetics of Royalty. PLoS Biol, 8: e1000532

    138. Ings, T.C., Ings, N.L., Chittka, L. & Rasmont, P. (2010). A failed invasion? Commercially introduced pollinators in Southern France. Apidologie, 41: 1–13

    137. Kapustjansky, A., Chittka, L. & Spaethe, J. (2010). Bees use three-dimensional information to improve target detection. Naturwissenschaften, 97: 229–233

    136. Lihoreau, L., Chittka, L. & Raine, N.E. (2010). Travel Optimization by Foraging Bumblebees through Readjustments of Traplines after Discovery of New Feeding Locations The American Naturalist, 176(6):744-757


    135. Muller, H., Grossmann, H. & Chittka, L. (2010). ‘Personality’ in bumblebees: individual consistency in responses to novel colours? Animal Behaviour, 80: 1065-1074

    134. Niven, J.E. & Chittka, L. (2010). Reuse of identified neurons in multiple neural circuits Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33: 4

    133. Skorupski, P. & Chittka, L. (2010). Photoreceptor Spectral Sensitivity in the Bumblebee, Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLos One, 5: e12049

    132. Skorupski, P. & Chittka, L. (2010).Differences in Photoreceptor Processing Speed for Chromatic and Achromatic Vision in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 3896–3903

    131. Stelzer, R.J. & Chittka, L. (2010). Bumblebee foraging rhythms under the midnight sun measured with radiofrequency identification. BMC Biology, 8:93

    130. Stelzer, R.J., Chittka, L., Carlton, M. & Ings, T.C. (2010). Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain. PLoS One, 5:e9559

    129. Stelzer, R.J., Raine, N.E., Schmitt, K.D. & Chittka, L. (2010). Effects of aposematic coloration on predation risk in bumblebees? A comparison between differently coloured populations, with consideration of the ultraviolet. Journal of Zoology, 282: 75-83

    128. Stelzer, R.J., Stanewsky, R. & Chittka, L. (2010). Circadian Foraging Rhythms of Bumblebees Monitored by Radio-frequency Identification. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 25: 257-267



    127. Arnold, S.E.J., Savolainen, V. & Chittka, L. (2009). Flower colours along an alpine altitude gradient, seen through the eyes of fly and bee pollinators. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 3: 27–43


    126. Arnold, S.E.J., Le Comber, S.C. & Chittka, L. (2009). Flower color phenology in European grassland and woodland habitats, through the eyes of pollinators. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 57: 211–230

    125. Chittka, L. & Muller, H. (2009). Learning, specialization, efficiency and task allocation in social insects. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 2: 151-154

    124. Chittka, L. & Niven, J. (2009). Are Bigger Brains Better? Current Biology, 19: R995-R1008


    123. Chittka, L., Skorupski, P. & Raine, N.E. (2009). Speed-accuracy tradeoffs in animal decision making. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24: 400-407

    122. Dangles, O., Irschick, D., Chittka, L. & Casas, J. (2009). Variability in sensory ecology: expanding the bridge between physiology and evolutionary biology. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 84: 51-74

    121. Ings, T.C. & Chittka L. (2009). Predator crypsis enhances behaviourally-mediated indirect effects on plants by altering bumblebee foraging preferences. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 276: 2031-2036

    120. Ings, T.C., Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2009). A population comparison of the strength and persistence of innate colour preference and learning speed in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 63: 1207-1218

    119. Leadbeater, E.A. & Chittka L. (2009). Bumble-bees learn the value of social cues through experience. Biology Letters, 5: 310-312

    118. Leadbeater, E.A. & Chittka, L. (2009). Social information use in foraging insects. In: S. Jarau & M. Hrncir (eds.) Food Exploitation by Social Insects: Ecological, Behavioral, and Theoretical Approaches. CRC Press, pp. 135-146

    117. Molet, M., Chittka, L. & Raine, N.E. (2009). Potential application of the bumblebee foraging recruitment pheromone for commercial greenhouse pollination. Apidologie, 40: 608-616

    116. Molet, M., Chittka, L. & Raine N.E. (2009). How floral odours are learned inside the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nest. Naturwissenschaften, 96: 213-219

    115. Ollerton, J., Cranmer, L., Stelzer, R.J., Sullivan, S. & Chittka, L. (2009). Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants. Naturwissenschaften, 96: 221-232

    114. Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2009). Measuring the adaptiveness of social insect foraging strategies - an empirical approach. In: S. Jarau & M. Hrncir (eds.) Food Exploitation by Social Insects: Ecological, Behavioral, and Theoretical Approaches. CRC Press, pp. 9-28

    113. Whitney, H.M., Chittka L., Bruce, T.J.A. & Glover, B.J. (2009). Conical Epidermal Cells Allow Bees to Grip Flowers and Increase Foraging Efficiency. Current Biology, 19: 948-953

    112. Whitney, H.M., Kolle, M., Andrew, P., Chittka L., Steiner U. & Glover B.J. (2009). Response to Comment on “Floral Iridescence, Produced by Diffractive Optics, Acts As a Cue for Animal Pollinators” Science, 325: 1072


    111. Whitney, H.M., Kolle, M., Andrew, P., Chittka L., Steiner, U. & Glover B.J. (2009). Floral Iridescence, Produced by Diffractive Optics, Acts As a Cue for Animal Pollinators. Science, 323: 130-133



    110. Ings, T.C. & Chittka, L. (2008). Speed accuracy tradeoffs and false alarms in bee responses to cryptic predators. Current Biology, 18: 1520-1524

    109. Leadbeater, E. & Chittka L. (2008). Social transmission of nectar-robbing behaviour in bumble-bees. Proc. R. Soc. B, 275: 1669-1674

    108. Molet, M., Chittka L, Stelzer, R.J.,  Streit, S. & Raine, N.E. (2008). Colony nutritional status modulates worker responses to foraging recruitment pheromone in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris . Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 62: 1919–1926. Supplementary material


    107. Muller, H. & Chittka, L. (2008). Animal personalities: the advantage of diversity. Current Biology, 20: pR961-R963


    106. Raine, N.E. & Chittka L. (2008). The correlation of learning speed and natural foraging success in bumble-bees. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B, 275: 803-808. Supplementary material


    105. Whitney H.M., Dyer A., Chittka, L., Rands S.A. & Glover B.J. (2008). The interaction of temperature and sucrose concentration on foraging preferences in bumblebees. Naturwissenschaften, 95: 845-850



    104. Chittka L. & Döring T.F. (2007). Are autumn foliage colours red signals to aphids? PLoS Biology, 5: 1640-1644

    103. Chittka L., Osorio D. (2007). Cognitive Dimensions of Predator Responses to Imperfect Mimicry. PLoS Biology, 5: 2754-2758

    102. Chittka, L. & Spaethe, J. (2007). Visual search and the importance of time in complex decision making by bees. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 1: 37-44

    101. Döring, T.F. & Chittka, L. (2007). Visual ecology of aphids - a critical review on the role of colours in host finding. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 1:3-16

    100. Dyer, A.G., Whitney, H.M., Arnold, S.E.J., Glover, B.J. & Chittka,  L. (2007). Mutations perturbing petal cell shape and anthocyanin synthesis influence bumblebee perception of Antirrhinum majus flower colour. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 1:45-55

    99. Leadbeater, E. & Chittka L. (2007). Social learning in insects - From miniature brains to consensus building. Current Biology, 17: R703-713


    98. Leadbeater, E. & Chittka, L. (2007). The dynamics of social learning in an insect model, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61: 1789-1796

    97. Raine, N.E, & Chittka, L. (2007). Nectar production rates of 75 bumblebee-visited flower species in a German flora (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus terrestris). Entomologia Generalis, 30: 191-192

    96. Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2007). The adaptive significance of sensory bias in a foraging context: floral colour preferences in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris . PLoS One, 2: e556

    95. Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2007). Flower constancy and memory dynamics in bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomologia Generalis, 29: 179-199

    94. Raine, N.E. & L Chittka. (2007). Pollen foraging: learning a complex motor skill by bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Naturwissenschaften, 94: 459-464

    93. Saleh, N. & Chittka, L. (2007). Traplining in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens): a foraging strategy's ontogeny and the importance of spatial reference memory in short range foraging. Oecologia, 151: 719-730

    92. Saleh, N., Scott A. G., Bryning G. P. & Chittka L. (2007). Distinguishing signals and cues: bumblebees use general footprints to generate adaptive behaviour at flowers and nest. Arthropod Plant Interactions, 1: 119-127

    91. Skorupski, P., Doering, T. & Chittka, L. (2007). Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity in island and mainland populations of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 193: 485-494

    90. Stelzer, R., Ollerton, J. & Chittka, L. (2007). Kein Nachweis für Hummelbesuch der Kanarischen Vogelblumen (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologia generalis, 30: 153-154

  • 2006


    89. Chittka L. & Raine, N.E. (2006). Recognition of flowers by pollinators. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 9: 428-435

    88. Dornhaus, A., Klügl, F., Oechslein, C., Puppe, F., & Chittka, L. (2006). Benefits of recruitment in honey bees: ecology and colony size. Behavioral Ecology, 17: 336-344

    87. Dyer, A.G., Whitney, H.M., Arnold , S.E.J., Glover, B.J. & Chittka, L. (2006). Bees associate warmth with flower colour. Nature, 442: 525-525

    86. Ings, T.C., Ward, N.L. & Chittka, L. (2006). Can commercially imported bumblebees out-compete their native conspecifics? Journal of Applied Ecology, 43: 940-948. (with cover page)

    85. Leadbeater, E., Raine, N.E. & Chittka L. (2006). Social learning: ants and the meaning of teaching. Current Biology, 16: R323-R325

    84. Raine, N.E., Ings, T.C., Dornhaus, A, Saleh, N. & Chittka, L. (2006). Adaptation, genetic drift, pleiotropy, and history in the evolution of bee foraging behavior. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 36: 305-354. DOI:  

    83. Raine, N. E., Ings T. C., Ramos-Rodríguez O. & Chittka L. (2006). Intercolony variation in learning performance of a wild British bumblebee population (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus terrestris audax ). Entomologia Generalis, 28: 241-256

    82. Saleh, N. & Chittka, L. (2006). The importance of experience in the interpretation of conspecific chemical signals. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61: 215-220

    81. Saleh, N., Ohashi, K., Thomson, J.D. & Chittka L. (2006). Facultative use of the repellent scent mark in foraging bumblebees: complex versus simple flowers. Animal Behaviour, 71: 847-854

    80. Skorupski, P. & Chittka, L. (2006). Animal Cognition: an Insect's Sense of Time? Current Biology, 16: R851-R853

    79. Skorupski, P., Spaethe, J. & Chittka, L. (2006). Visual search and decision making in Bees: Time, Speed and Accuracy. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 19: 342-357

    78. Spaethe, J., Tautz, J. & Chittka, L. (2006). Do honeybees detect colour targets using serial or parallel visual search? The Jounal of Experimental Biology, 209: 987-993



    77. Chittka, L. & Brockmann, A. (2005). Perception space, the final frontier. PLoS Biology, 3: 564-568

    76. Chittka, L. & Leadbeater, E. (2005). Social learning: public information in insects. Current Biology, 15: R869-R871

    75. Chittka, L. & Kevan, P.G. (2005). Flower colour as advertisement. In Dafni, A., Kevan, P.G., Husband, B.C. (eds.) Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest Ltd., Cambridge , ON , Canada , pp. 157-196

    74. Dornhaus, A. & Chittka, L. (2005). Bumble bees store both food and information in honeypots. Behavioral Ecology, 16: 661-666

    73. Dyer, A., Neumeyer, C., Chittka, L. (2005). Honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) vision can discriminate between and recognise images of human faces. Journal of Experimental Biology, , 208: 4709-4714 (with cover page, and coverage in New Scientist)

    72. Heiling, A.M., Cheng, K., Chittka, L. , Goeth, A. & Herberstein , M.E. (2005). The role of UV in crab spider signals: effects on perception by prey and predators. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208: 3925-3931

    71. Heiling, A.M., Chittka, L., Cheng, K. & Herberstein , M.E. (2005). Colouration in crab spiders – substrate choice and prey attraction. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208: 1785-1792

    70. Ings, T., Schikora, J. & Chittka, L. (2005). Bumblebees, humble pollinators or assiduousinvaders?  A population comparison of foraging performance in Bombus terrestris. Oecologia, 144: 508-516

    69. Ings, T., Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2005). Mating Preference of Commercially Imported Bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris ) in Britain (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologia generalis, 28: 233-238

    68. Leadbeater, E. & Chittka, L. (2005). A new mode of information transfer in bumblebees. Current Biology, 15: R447-R448. (with commentary in Nature , Science News, and The Guardian)

    67. Lotto, R.B. & Chittka, L. (2005). Seeing the light: Illumination as a contextual cue to color choice behavior in bumblebees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102: 3852-3856

    66. Mena Granero, A., Guerra Sanz, J.M., Egea Gonzalez FJ, Martinez Vidal, JL, Dornhaus, A. Ghani, J., Roldán Serrano, A. & Chittka, L. (2005). Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees. Naturwissenschaften, 92: 371-374

    65. Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2005). Comparison of flower constancy and foraging performance in three bumblebee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus). Entomologia generalis, 28: 81-89

    64. Raine, N.E. & Chittka, L. (2005). Colour preferences in relation to the foraging performance and fitness of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris . Uludag Bee Journal, 5: 145-150

    63. Rasmont, P., Regali, A., Ings, T.C., Lognay, G., Baudart, E., Marlier, M., Delcarte, E., Viville, P., Marot, C., Falmagne, P., Verhaeghe, J.-C. & Chittka, L. (2005). Analysis of the pollen and nectar of Arbutus unedo as a food source for Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 98: 656-663      


    62. Chittka, L. (2004). Dances as windows into insect perception. PLoS Biology, 2:898-900  

    61. Chittka, L., Ings, T. & Raine, N.E. (2004). Chance and adaptation in the evolution of island bumblebee behaviour. Population Ecology, 46: 243-251

    60. Chittka, L., & Wells, H. (2004). Color vision in bees: mechanisms, ecology and evolution. In: Prete, F.: Complex Worlds from simpler nervous systems; MIT Press, Boston pp. 165-191

    59. Dornhaus, A. & Chittka, L. (2004). Information flow and regulation of foraging activity in bumble bees (Bombus spp). Apidologie, 35: 183-192


    58. Dornhaus, A. & Chittka, L. (2004). Why do honeybees dance? Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 55: 395-401

    57. Dyer, A.G. & Chittka, L. (2004). Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) sacrifice foraging speed to learn difficult colour discrimination tasks. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 190: 759-763

    56. Dyer, AG. & Chittka, L. (2004). Biological significance of discriminating between similar colours in spectrally variable illumination: bumblebees as a study case. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 190: 105-114

    55. Dyer, A.G. & Chittka, L. (2004). Bumblebee search times without ultraviolet light. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207: 1683-1688

    54. Dyer, A.G. & Chittka, L. (2004). Fine colour discrimination requires differential conditioning in bumblebees. Naturwissenschaften, 91: 224-227


    53. Smith, C., Barber, I., Wootton, R.J. & Chittka, L. (2004). A receiver bias in the origin of threespine stickleback mate choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B, 271: 949-955


    52. Chittka, L., Dyer, A.G., Bock, F. & Dornhaus, A. (2003). Bees trade off foraging speed for accuracy. Nature, 424: 388-388

    51. Chittka, L. & Tautz, J. (2003). The spectral input to honeybee visual odometry. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206: 2393-2397

    50. Dornhaus, A., Brockmann, A. & Chittka, L. (2003). Bumble bees alert to food with pheromone from tergal gland. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 189: 47-51

    49. Heiling, A. M., Herberstein, M. E. & Chittka, L. (2003). Crab-spiders manipulate flower signals. Nature, 421: 334-334

    48. Spaethe, J. & Chittka, L. (2003). Interindividual variation of eye optics and single object resolution in bumblebees. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206: 3447-3453      


    47. Chittka, L. (2002). The influence of intermittent rewards on learning to handle flowers in bumblebees. Entomologia generalis, 26: 85-91      


    46. Briscoe, A. & Chittka, L. (2001). The evolution of colour vision in insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 46: 471-510

    45. Chittka L. (2001). Camouflage of Predatory Crab Spiders on Flowers, and the Colour Perception of Bees. Entomologia generalis, 25: 181-187

    44. Chittka, L., & Briscoe, A. (2001). Why sensory ecology needs to become more evolutionary – insect color vision as a case in point. In Barth, F.G., Schmid, A. (ed.) Ecology of Sensing, Springer Verlag, Berlin , pp.19-38

    43. Chittka, L., & Schürkens S. (2001). Successful invasion of a floral market. Nature, 411: 653-653

    42. Chittka, L. & Thomson, J.D. (2001). Cognitive Ecology – Preface. In: Chittka,L. & Thomson, J.D. (eds.) Cognitive Ecology of Pollination. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , pp. x-xiii

    41. Chittka, L., Spaethe, J., Schmidt, A., Hickelsberger, A. (2001). Adaptation, constraint, and chance in the evolution of flower color and pollinator color vision. In: Chittka, L. & Thomson, J.D. (eds.) Cognitive Ecology of Pollination. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , pp. 106-126

    40. Dornhaus, A. & Chittka, L. (2001). Food alert in bumblebees: possible mechanisms and evolutionary implications. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 50: 570-576

    39. Kevan, P.G., Chittka, L., Dyer, A. (2001). Limits to the salience of ultraviolet – lessons from color vision in bees and birds. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204: 2571-2580


    38. Schürkens, S., Chittka, L. (2001). The significance of the invasive Crucifer species Bunias orientalis (Brassicaceae) as a nectar source for central European insects. Entomologia generalis, 25: 115-120

    37. Spaethe, J., Tautz, J. & Chittka, L. (2001). Visual constraints in foraging bumble bees: flower size and colour affect search time and flight behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98: 3898-3903

    36. Thomson, J.D. & Chittka, L. (2001). Pollinator individuality: when does it matter? In: Chittka, L. & Thomson, J.D. (eds.) Cognitive Ecology of Pollination. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , pp. 191-213


    Chittka, L. & Thomson, J.D. (eds.) 2001.Cognitive Ecology of Pollination - Animal Behavior and Floral Evolution. Cambridge University Press, 423pp.


    Robert J. Gegear, Terence M. Laverty, Randolf Menzel, Keith D. Waddington, Martin Giurfa, Miriam Lehrer, Robert A. Raguso, Lars Chittka, Johannes Spaethe, Annette Schmidt, Anja Hickelsberger, Sue Healy, T. Andrew Hurly, York Winter, Otto v. Helversen, Martha Weiss, Ann Smithson, Krinstina N. Jones, Kazuharu Ohashi, Tetsukazu Yahara, Lawrence D. Harder, Neal M. Williams, Crispin Y. Jordan, William A. Nelson, Nickolas M. Waser

    Order at:



    35. Chittka, L. (1999). Bees, white flowers, and the color hexagon – a reassessment? No, not yet. Naturwissenschaften, 86: 595-597


    34. Chittka, L., Thomson, J.D. Waser, N.M (1999). Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution. Naturwissenschaften, 86: 361-377

    33. Chittka, L., Williams, N., Rasmussen, H., Thomson, J.D. (1999). Navigation without vision –bumble bee orientation in complete darkness. Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B, 266: 45-50 (with commentary in Science News)

    32. Dornhaus, A. & Chittka, L. (1999). Evolutionary origins of bee dances. Nature, 401: 38-38

    31. Gumbert, A., Kunze, J. & Chittka, L. (1999). Flower color diversity in plant communities, bee color space, and a null model. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 266: 1711-1716


    30. Chittka, L. (1998). Sensori-motor learning in bumble bees: long term retention and reversal training. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201: 515-524 (with commentary in New Scientist)

    29. Menzel, R., Geiger, K., Mueller, U., Joerges, J. & Chittka, L. (1998). Bees travel novel homeward routes by integrating separately acquired vector memories. Animal Behaviour, 55: 139-152

    28. Waser, N.M. & Chittka, L. (1998). Bedazzled by flowers. Nature, 394: 835-836

  • 1997


    27. Chittka, L. (1997). Bee color vision is optimal for coding flower colors, but flower colors are not optimal for being coded - why? Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 45: 115-127

    26. Chittka, L., Gumbert, A. & Kunze, J. (1997). Foraging dynamics of bumble bees: correlates of movements within and between plant species. Behavioral Ecology, 8: 239-249

    25. Chittka, L., Schorn, J., de Souza, J.M., Ventura, D.F. & Camargo, J.M.F. (1997). The nest entrance signal of the Amazonian bees Partamona pearsoni - a case where insects design their own flight targets. In: Kipyatkov, V.E. (ed.) Proceedings of the Colloquia on Social Insects, Volume 3-4, pp.107-116

    24. Chittka, L. & Thomson, J.D (1997). Sensori-motor learning and its relevance for task specialization in bumble bees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 41: 385-398


    23. Chittka, L. & Waser, N.M. (1997). Why red flowers are not invisible for bees. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 45: 169-183 (with commentary in TREE)


    22. Chittka, L. (1996). Optimal sets of colour receptors and opponent processes for coding of natural objects in insect vision. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 181: 179-196

    21. Chittka, L. (1996). Does bee colour vision predate the evolution of flower colour? Naturwissenschaften, 83: 136-138 (with commentary in Discover Magazine)

    20. Kevan, P.G., Giurfa, M. & Chittka, L. (1996). Why are there so many and so few white flowers? Trends in Plant Sciences, 1: 280-284

    19. Kunze, J. & Chittka, L. (1996). Bees and butterflies fly faster when plants feed them more nectar. In: Goettingen Neurobiology Report 1996, (eds. Elsner, N. & Schnitzler, H.) Stuttgart:Thieme Verlag, p. 109

    18. Lunau, K., Wacht, S. & Chittka, L. (1996). Colour choices of naive bumble bees and their implications for colour perception. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 178: 477-489


    17. Maloney, L.T. & Chittka, L. (1996). Is color constancy biologically relevant? Consequences of different color constancy algorithms for simulated bee foraging performance. In: Göttingen Neurobiology Report 1996, (eds. Elsner, N. & Schnitzler, H.) Stuttgart:Thieme Verlag, p. 340

    16. Menzel, R., Geiger, K., Chittka, L., Joerges, J., Kunze, J., and Mueller, U. (1996). The knowledge base of bee navigation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199: 141-146

    15. Waser , N.M., Chittka, L., Price, M.V., Williams, N. & Ollerton, J. (1996). Generalization in pollination systems, and why it matters. Ecology, 77: 1043-1060


    14. Chittka, L. & Geiger, K. (1995). Can honeybees count landmarks? Animal Behaviour, 49: 159-164 (with commentary in New Scientist)

    13. Chittka, L. & Geiger, K. (1995). Honeybee long-distance orientation in a controlled environment. Ethology, 99: 117-126

    12. Chittka, L., Kunze, J. & Geiger, K. (1995). The influences of landmarks on distance estimation of honeybees. Animal Behaviour, 50: 23-31


    11. Chittka, L., Kunze, J., Shipman, C. & Buchmann, S.L. (1995). The significance of landmarks for path integration of homing honey bee foragers. Naturwissenschaften, 82: 341-343

    10. Giurfa, M., Nunez, J., Chittka, L., & Menzel, R. (1995). Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 177: 247-259


    9. Chittka, L., Shmida, A., Troje, N. & Menzel, R. (1994). Ultraviolet as a component of flower reflections, and the colour perception of hymenoptera. Vision Research, 34: 1489-1508


    8. Chittka, L. (1993) The colour perception of Hymenoptera, the colours of flowers, and their evolutionary and ecological relationship. PhD Dissertation, Free University of Berlin


    7. Chittka, L., Vorobyev, M., Shmida, A. & Menzel, R. (1993). Bee colour vision - the optimal system for the discrimination of flower colours with three spectral photoreceptor types? In: Sensory Systems of Arthropods, (edited by Wiese, K., Gribakin, F.G., Popov, A.V. and Renninger, G.) Basel/Switzerland:Birkhäuser Verlag, p. 211-218


    6. Chittka, L. (1992). The color hexagon: a chromaticity diagram based on photoreceptor excitations as a generalized representation of colour opponency. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 170: 533-543

    5. Chittka, L., Beier, W., Hertel, H., Steinmann, E. & Menzel, R. (1992). Opponent colour coding is a universal strategy to evaluate the photoreceptor inputs in hymenoptera. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 170: 545-563

    4. Chittka, L., Bonn, A., Geiger, K., Hellstern, F., Klein, J., Koch, G., Meuser, S. & Menzel, R. (1992). Do bees navigate by means of snapshot memory pictures? In: Rhythmogenesis in neurons and networks: Proceedings of the 20th Göttingen Neurobiology Conference, (edited by Elsner, N. and Richter), D.W.Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, p. 694

    3. Chittka, L. & Menzel, R. (1992). The evolutionary adaptation of flower colors and the insect pollinators' color vision systems. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 171:171-181


    2. Menzel, R., Chittka, L., Eichmüller, S., Geiger, K., Peitsch, D. & Knoll, P. (1990). Dominance of celestial cues over landmarks disproves map-like orientation in honey bees. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 45c:723-726


    1. Chittka, L., Hoffmann, M. & Menzel, R. (1988). Discrimination of UV-green patterns in honey bees. In: Sense organs, (edited by Elsner, N. and Barth), F.G.Stuttgart: Thieme, p. 218


    Chittka L. (2023) The inner lives of insects. Scientific American, 32991):26-33
    Chittka L. (2022) "Personality" differences between bees. Natural History, 922(3):16-23
    Gibbons M., Crump A. & Chittka L. Insects may feel pain, says growing evidence – here’s what this means for animal welfare laws. The Conversation December 14, 2022.>

  • Chittka L. (2020) Entomological Rock Music. Antenna 44(2): 62-63


    Chittka L. (2019) The mind of the bee, and the mind of the Wiko scholar. Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Jahrbuch 2017/2018: 45-50

    Chittka L. & Wilson C. (2018) Bee-brained. Aeon November 27, 2018.


    Chittka L., (2018) A bee as pet – a bee psychologist’s perspective. Antenna 42(1): 4-5

  • Chittka L., (2018) Intelligente Bienen. Deutsches Bienen Journal 2018(2): 14-16

    Jeremy Hance. (2010). Uncovering the intelligence of insects, an interview with Lars Chittka. June 29, 2010.

    Molet, M., Chittka, L. & Raine N. (2009). Bumblebee Foraging Pheromones. Bee Craft July 2009: 20

    Döring, T.F., Hardie, J., Leather, S., Spaethe, J. & Chittka L. (2008). Can aphids play football? Antenna, 32: 146-147

    Döring, T.F. & Chittka, L. (2007). Lesley Goodman award public lecture series on insect vision. Antenna, 31: 187-189

    Chittka, L. (2007). Seeing red by accident? Planet Earth, pp. 30-31

    Chittka, L. & Walker, J. (2007). Insects as art lovers: Bees for Van Gogh. Antennae, 2: 37-42

    Whitney, H. & Chittka, L. (2007). Warm Flowers, Happy pollinators. Biologist, 54: 154-159

    Chittka, L. & Walker, J. (2006). Do bees like Van Gogh’s Sunflowers? Optics and Laser Technology, 38: 323-328 (with coverage on BBC and ABC news, Science , New Scientist, Art Monthly, The Times, and multiple radio stations)

    Chittka, L. & Dornhaus, A. (1999). Comparisons in physiology and evolution, and why bees can do the things they do. Ciencia al Dia International, 2: 1-17. (electronic publication).

  • Chittka, L. (2023). The Doors of Animal Perception. Scientists' Nightstand, American Scientist 111, 55:57 

  • Chittka, L. (2018). The past, present and future of the beasts that may have made our brains. Current Biology 28(13): R722–R723. DOI:

    Chittka, L. & Mesoudi, A. (2011). A review of: Honeybee Democracy. Seeley, Thomas D. Princeton University Press, 2010. Science, 331:401

    Chittka, L. (2007). A review of: Letters from the Hive – An Intimate History of Bees, Honey, and Humankind. Buchmann S & Banning R. Entomologia generalis, 29:164

    Chittka, L. (2007). A review of: Asian Honey Bees – Biology, Conservation, and Human Interactions. Oldroyd BP & Wongsiri S. Entomologia generalis, 29:284

    Chittka, L. (2007). A review of: A Field Guide in Colour to Bees and Wasps. Zahradnik J & Severa F. Entomologia generalis, 29:134

    Chittka, L. (2007). A review of: Bumblebees. Prys-Jones OE & Corbet SA. Entomologia generalis, 29:123

    Chittka, L. (2007). A review of: Bumblebees – Behaviour and Ecology. Goulson DG. Entomologia generalis, 29:134

    Chittka, L. (2003).Plants and animals, forever entangled. A review of: “Plant-Animal Interactions”. C. Herrera & O. Pellmyr (eds.). Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18: 12-13

    Chittka, L. (1999). Spatial Representation in Animals. Sue Healy (ed.). Animal Behaviour, 57: 735-736

    Chittka, L. (1999). Learning and Adaptation. A review of: "Cognitive Ecology: The Evolutionary Ecology of Information Processing and Decision Making". Reuven Dukas (ed.). Quaterly Review of Biology, 74: 326-327